Monday, December 11, 2017

Understanding The Internet

Initiated as a network between two computers using a phone line this phenomenon has grown exponentially into an indispensable extension of our lives. How we communicate, search for information to satisfy our queries and conduct eCommerce all depends upon this extensive networking of computers and servers using various kinds of communication lines not only the phone.  

Within this vast network exists small private networks, institutional networks closed groups and many social media platforms that play varied roles.

WWW

The websites are hosted on the cyber space provided by the servers and then networked. This exponentially expanding space is known as the WWW or World Wide Web. Each resource is having a unique locator called URL which stands for universal resource locator.       

IP Address

Since the Internet is a web of millions of computers each computer must have a recognition and this comes about by each having an IP address. The protocol denotes that the IP address should be a number ranging from 0 to 255 in format nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn

A computer always has a unique IP address but in various types of networks a temporary address can be assigned during the connected session. This can happen in the case of LAN through the DHCP or Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. In case of ISP or Internet Service Provider a temporary IP address is assigned.      

Packets & Protocol Stack & TCP/IP 

The Internet date flowing from a computer through a phone line is always in manageable packets which are electronic signals they are then converted back into alphabetical signals on your machine. This is done using the protocol stack which is built into the operating system. The protocol is referred as TCP/IP.      

The message flow from one computer to another is through the application to the hardware Ethernet cable and modem to another computer hardware using the Internet. Here it is sent to the application using the protocol.   

Hence   

Application
TCP 
to specific application using a port number
IP  to specific computer using IP address
Hardware  

A reverse sequence then followed using the TCP/IP protocol.